Common Ground by Erin Elizabeth Wilson

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ART H 391 A: Paris Architecture

We look forward to safely returning to in-person instruction and activities this autumn quarter. Current and prospective students please visit our COVID-19 Updates pages.
Meeting Time: 
TTh 2:30pm - 4:20pm
Location: 
* *
SLN: 
21070
Instructor:
Meredith Clausen
Meredith Clausen

Syllabus Description:

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ah391 – Paris: Architecture & Urbanism  spring 2021; 5 credits
TTh 2:30-4:20    ONLINE: CANVAS
Instructor: Meredith L. Clausen <
mlc@uw.edu>

Office hours: Wed., 1-3pm, or by email appointment
Paris: Architecture & Urbanism

 

LECTURE POWERPOINTS

READINGS

RECORDED LECTURES 

 

Course requirements:

-twice weekly lectures (recorded; asynchronous); required readings; three short-answer exams. NO MAKE UPS WITHOUT PRIOR APPROVAL FROM INSTRUCTOR.

-GRADUATE STUDENTS: a 15-20 pg research paper is also required. Topic is of your choice contingent on instructor's approval.  Due 27may. For those who are not seasoned research paper writers, please read appropriate parts of most recent edition of Weidenborner & Caruso, Writing Research Papers: A Guide to the Process, or the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. Students writing papers need to let instructor know no later than the end of the second week of the quarter their proposal for a research topic. Important that one start working on this straightaway, as time flies when you're having fun...

Student Services: Disability Services Office: If you need academic accommodations due to a disability, contact the Disability Services Office, or more specifically, Disability Resources for Students, Email: dso@uw.edu, 206- 543-6450 (voice) / 206-543-6452 (TTY). Have them contact instructor indicating a disability that may require assistance.

Texts:
-Sutcliffe, Anthony. Paris: An Architectural History, 1993. Long Out of Print, but still best there is; try to find used copy (Univ Book Store may have some, as I've requested it; copies are also available in the CBE Library which may open up at some point. There will also be pdfs available under Readings. 
-Horne, Alistair. Seven Ages of Paris, 2004 (ppbk edition, available at UBkStore)

Other required readings: 
-Supplemental readings (some required, most only recommended), are listed on the syllabus. I have pdfs of most if not all of them, and can post them on demand. Readings are uneven in length, and competition for books is likely to be keen especially around exam times, so plan ahead. 
-Required readings will be posted on CANVAS; there are also copies of the books in the CBE Library; public libraries too may have copies of them. 

Images: those used in class will be available online via CANVAS (http://canvas.uw.edu). If you need help on accessing this, go to http://www.washington.edu/itconnect/learn/tools/canvas/.
Additional images may also be found in the Cities/Buildings Database: http://content.lib.washington.edu/buildingsweb

 

LECTURE/DISCUSSION SCHEDULE AND READINGS:

NB: Getting the most out of lectures and contributing to the class depend on your having read the assigned material before class. Please plan your time accordingly.

T 30mar - Introduction: brief overview of the course
-texts: Sutcliffe and Horne; selected readings
-syllabus, reading assignments, exams, research paper.
Recommended background reading for those who may need/want it:

-Turabian, Kate L. A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations. Chicago Style for Students and Researchers, 9th ed.. (recommended; there are other similar guides) 
-Saylor, Dictionary of Architecture (recommended because simple/clear; there are others) 
-Kostof, Spiro. A History of Architecture (old but still one of the best basic arch history texts; highly recommended) 
-Jones, Colin. Paris. Biography of a City, Viking Pres, 2005 (good, comprehensive history of the city)

Th 1ap – Pre-Roman (Gallic) origins; Roman encampment & Lutètia; Roman city planning and building types

Required reading:
Horne, Seven Ages of Paris. Intro: From Caesar to Abélard, 1-14 
Sutcliffe, Paris: An Architectural History, preface, chapt 1, ix-7.

Recommended:
Caine, B. Gendering European History. 2002
MacDonald,
The Roman Empire, v. 2: An Urban Appraisal, 1986
Mumford,
The City in History. Its Origins, Transformations, and Its Prospects, 1961
Summerson, Sir John.
The Classical Language of Architecture, 1963 (1993 or more recent reprint)

T 6ap- Medieval developments

Required reading:
Horne, Seven Ages, 17-53
McClendon, Charles B.
The Origins of Medieval Architecture, 2005. 1-22 [CANVAS]

Recommended:
McClendon, Charles B. The Origins of Medieval Architecture. Building in Europe, A.D. 600-900, Roux, Simone. Paris in the Middle Ages, 2003. Intro and chapts 1-2, pp. 1-44 [CANVAS]
Hodges, Richard.
Towns and Trade in the Age of Charlemagne, 2000
Nicholas, David.
The Growth of the Medieval City, 1997

Th 8ap – Gothic era, 13th - 15th c.
Abbot Suger, and St. Denis (pilgrimage site; expansion of the church; beginnings of Gothic); Chartres and spread of Gothic in the Ilê de France; Notre Dame de Paris; Ste Chapelle; the medieval city, streets, half- timbered houses. Châteaux on the Loire (Chenonceaux, Chaumont, Azay, Chambord)

Required reading:

Kostof, "The Architect in the Middle Ages," in Kostof, The Architect, 59-95 [CANVAS]

Horne, Seven Ages, Age Two, 57-74

Recommended:

Stoddard, W. Art & Architecture in Medieval France, 1972, “Historical Background, St Denis,” 93-111; “The Cathedral in Paris,” 137-145

Wilson, Christopher. The Gothic Cathedral, 1990, pp. 24-54
Bony, Jean.
French Gothic Architecture of the 12th & 13th Centuries, 1983 
Mark, Robert. Experiments in Gothic Structure, 1982

Roux, Simone. Paris in the Middle Ages, 2003.

Baldwin, John W. Paris, 1200. 2010
Caine and Sluga,
Gendering European History

T 13ap – Renaissance Stirrings from Italy. Châteaux on the Loire (Chenonçeaux, Azay, Chambord); François I, and the Louvre; Henri IV & rebuilding of Paris

GRAD STUDENTS: research topic due. Send me your topic and thesis (main point or aim of the paper), if haven't already. If need be, see Weidenborner and Caruso, Writing Research Papers: A Guide to the Process, or MLA, on defining a topic

Required reading:
Horne, Seven Ages, 75-101 
Sutcliffe, chapt 2, 8-23

Recommended:
Thomson, David. Renaissance Paris. Architecture and Growth 1475-1600, 1984
Summerson, Sir John.
Classical Language of Architecture
Gerbino, Anthony. François Blondel. Architecture, Erudition, and the Scientific Revolution, 2010 Ballon, Hilary. The Paris of Henri IV. Architecture and Urbanism, 1991

Th 15ap – 17th c. Paris: Bernini and the Louvre

Required reading:
Horne, Seven Ages, 105-134
Sutcliffe, chapt 3, 24-47
Kostof, On Absolutism in 17
th c. France, History of Architecture, pp. 527-532 [CANVAS]

Recommended:
Ballon, Hilary. Louis LeVau. Mazarin’s College, Colbert’s Revenge, 1999
Berger, Robert. The Palace of the Sun. The Louvre of Louis XIV, 1993
Gould, C. Bernini in Paris, 1981
Gerbino, Blondel, esp chpt 2 on the Académie Royale d' Architecture

T 20ap – FIRST EXAM

Th 22ap - Versailles: the town, palace, and gardens

Required reading:
Kostof, "Versailles" A History of Architecture, 532-538

Recommended:
Zega and Dams, Palaces of the Sun King. Versailles Trianon Marly, 2002

Ranum, Orest. Paris in the Age of Absolutism, 1968 (old, but still good)

T 27ap -18th c. architectural theory, architecture of the Enlightenment; Soufflot, Church of Ste Geneviève

Required reading:
Horne, Seven Ages, 135-156 Sutcliffe, chpt 4, 48-66

Recommended:

Kruft, “Relativist architectural aesthetics, the Enlightenment, and Revolutionary Architecture,” in Kruft, A History of Architectural Theory, 1994, pp. 141-165

Ziskin, Rochelle. The Place Vendome. Architecture and Social Mobility in 18th c. Paris, 1999

Braham, Allan. The Architecture of the French Enlightenment, 1980
Gallet, Michel.
Demeures parisiennes. L’Epoque de Louis XVI, 1964
Mallgrave, Harry Francis. "The Enlightenment & Neoclassical Theory." in Mallgrave,
Modern Architectural Theory, 2005. [CANVAS]
Picon, Antoine.
French Architects and Engineers, transla Martin Thom, 1992.

Rykwert, Joseph. The First Moderns. The Architects of the Eighteenth Century, 1980.

Th 29ap - Enlightenment (con't); Visionary Architects; Revolution

Required reading:

Sutcliffe, chpt 5, 67-82
Bergdoll, "Church of Ste Geneviève,"
European Architecture, 23-32 [CANVAS]

T 4may - Napoleonic Empire (pre-Haussmann modernization)
Louvre into museum; establishment of the Ecole des Beaux-Arts; J.L. Durand and the Ecole Polytechnique; developments in iron/glass; arcades; railroad stations; Henri Labrouste

Required reading:
Horne, Seven Ages, 159-229
Benjamin, Walter. “Paris, Capital of the Nineteenth Century,” in Benjamin,
Reflections. Essays, 
Aphorisms, Autobiographical Writings, ed. By Peter Demetz, 1978, 146-162. [CANVAS]

Recommended:
Benjamin, Walter. The Arcades Project, esp. “The Arcades of Paris,” 873-884.
Levine, Neil. “The book and the building: Hugo’s theory of architecture and Labrouste’s Bibliothèque 
Ste-Geneviève,” in Middleton, The Beaux-Arts & Nineteenth Century French Architecture, 138-173 
Geist, Johann Friedrich. Arcades. The History of a Building Type, 1983.

Keith, Michael. “Walter Benjamin, Urban Studies and the Narratives of City Life,” in Bridge, G. and S. Watson, A Companion to the City, 2000.
Durand, Jean-Nicolas-Louis.
Précis of the Lectures on Architecture, Getty Research Institute, 2000 Villari, Sergio. J.N.L Durand 1760-1834, 1990
Van Zanten, David.
Building Paris. Architectural Institutions and the Transformation of the French 
Capital, 1830-1970, 1994

Th 6may - 2nd Empire, Napoléon III, Transformation of Paris (the city, thoroughfares, waterways, parks, sewer system, sanitation, facades, railroad stations)

Required reading: Sutcliffe, chpt 6, 83-104

Recommended:

De Thézy, Marie. Marville Paris, 1994 (plates only. On reserve, CBE Lib)
Bressani, Marin. “Light into Darkness: Gaslight in 19
th c. Paris,” Sandy Isenstadt (ed). Cities of Light. Two Centuries of Urban Illumination, Routledge, 2015.

Clayson and Dombrowski, Is Paris Still the Capital of the 19th Century. Essays on Art & Modernity, 
1850-1900, 2016 (sev essays therein pertain to archtr and Haussmannization) 

Harvey, David. Paris Capital of Modernity, 2003
Gaillard, Jeanne.
Paris, la Ville (1852-1870), 1997
Pinkney, David.
Napoleon III and the Rebuilding of Paris, 1958 (an old classic)

Saalmann, Howard. Haussmann: Paris Transformed, 1971

Choay, Françoise. The Modern City: Planning in the 19th Century, 1969
Clausen, "Bon Marché Department Store - Birth of the Building Type,"
Journal of Architectural 
Education, fall 1985

T 11may – Charles Garnier, and the Opéra; 2nd Empire/Third Republic buildings. Garnier’s opera house and the bourgeoisie; rise of the department store; hegemony of the Ecole des Beaux-Arts

Required reading:
Horne, Seven Ages, 251-276
Sutcliffe, chpt 7, 105-137
Clausen, Meredith. "Department Stores," in Joseph A. Wilkes, ed.,
Encyclopedia of Architecture, 
Design, Engineering and Construction, 2: 204-22, NY: Wiley, 1988. [CANVAS]

Recommended:

Egbert, Donald Drew. The Beaux-Arts Tradition in French Architecture, 1980
Mead, Christopher.
The Paris Opera, 1991
Miller, Michael.
The Bon Marché. Bourgeois Culture and the Department Store, 1869-1920, 1981 Zola, Au Bonheur des Dames, 1883. In English, The Ladies’ Paradise, 1992

Th 13may – SECOND EXAM

T 18may – International Expositions, and their impact on Paris. Earlier developments (London World Expo, 1851; Paris, 1855 and '67); 1889, Eiffel, and the Galerie des Machines; 1900 Exposition

Required reading:
Barthes, Roland. The Eiffel Tower and Other Mythologies, 3-34 (CANVAS)
Salvadori, Mario. “The Eiffel Tower,” in
Why Buildings Stand Up, 126-143 (CANVAS)

Mattie, E. World's Fairs (plates)

Recommended:
Mattie, E. World's Fairs (plates; on reserve CBE Lib)
Vidler, Anthony (ed). “Paris Under the Academy: City & Ideology,”
Oppositions Spring 1977. (theory, not history)

Th 20may - Belle Epoque, Métro, and Art Nouveau

Required reading:
Horne, Seven Ages. Belle Epoque; The Great War, 279-322
Evenson, Norma. “The Daily Journey,”
Paris. A Century of Change, 1878-1978, 76 –122 (CANVAS)

Recommended:
Paris 1900. La Ville Spectacle
. Petit Palais, Musée des Beaux-Arts de la Ville de Paris, 2014 (plates) Borsi and Godoli, Paris 1900, 1978 (plates)
Russell, Frank.
Art Nouveau Architecture, 1979 (plates)
Clausen, Meredith L.
Frantz Jourdain and the Samaritaine. Art Nouveau Theory & Criticism, 1986 
Clausen, "Architecture and the Poster. Toward a Redefinition of the Art Nouveau," Gazette des Beaux-Arts, CVI, September l985, 81-94. (on democratic ideals, 1890s-1900s) 
Troy, Nancy. Modernism and the Decorative Arts in France, 1991 Silverman, Debora. Art Nouveau in Fin-de-Siècle France. Politics, Psychology, and Style, 1989

T 25may - Paris in the '20s. Paris Expo, 1925, and the Arts Décoratifs; the Modernists: le Corbusier, Mallet- Stevens, Roux-Spitz et al; Mondrian and the influence of deStijl

Required reading:
Horne, Seven Ages. The Phony Peace; The Occupation, 323-374
Sutcliffe, chapt 8. 138-159
Le Corbusier,
Toward An Architecture, intro by Jean-Louis Cohen, 2007 (orig published in French, 
1924). Cohen’s intro, 1-78; “Aesthetic of the Engineer; Three Reminders to Architects: Volume, Surface, Plan.” (CANVAS)

Clausen, "The Ecole des Beaux-Arts: Towards a Gendered History," JSAH, June 2010. (CANVAS) Bréon et Rivoirard (eds), 1925 Quand L'Art Déco Séduit le Monde, catalogue, exhibition, Cité de l'architecture et du patrimoine, Paris, 2014. PLATES (text  in French; in library)

Recommended:
Anderson, Alex. The Problem of the House. French Domestic... Life Rise of Modern Architecture, 2006

Benton, Tim. The Modernist House, 2006
Troy, Nancy. Modernism and the Decorative Arts in France, 1991
Kolosek, Lisa Schlansker.
The Invention of Chic: Thérèse Bonney and Paris moderne, 2002
Weber, Nicolas.
Le Corbusier: A Life, 2008

Th 27may - War, Reconstruction, and Postwar Paris
La Défense and other suburban developments; the Tour Montparnasse

GRADUATE STUDENTS: RESEARCH PAPERS DUE. Send in Word format, please, so I can comment.

Required reading:
Horne,
Seven Ages, 375-401 Sutcliffe, chpt 9, 160-199

Recommended:
Evenson, Paris. A Century of Change, 1878-1978. (postwar developments, La Défense; housing) Riding, Alan. And the Show Went On: Cultural Life in Nazi-Occupied Paris, 2010
Busbea, Larry.
Topologies. The Urban Utopia in France, 1960-1970, 2007
Wakeman, Rosemary.
The Heroic City: Paris 1945-1958, 2009

T 1june - Mitterrand’s Grands Projets; Contemporary Paris
Required reading:
Horne, Seven Ages, 402-422
Sutcliffe, chpt 10, 200-206
Fachard, Sabine (ed).
Paris 1979-1989 (plates, in lib, look at if can)

Recommended:
Chaslin, François. Les Paris de François Mitterrand, 1985 (en français) 
Boissière, Olivier. Jean Nouvel. 1992 Lubell, Sam. Paris 2000+. New Architecture, 2007 (esp plates)

Gleiniger, Matzig, Redecke. Paris. Contemporary Architecture, 1997 
Texier, Simon. Paris Contemporain de Haussmann à nos jours, 2005 (en français)

Th 3june - THIRD EXAM. Exam posted at 2:30; answers should be sent to me via email no later than 4pm.

Exams: short answer format consisting of four questions with a choice out of five; no slide identification, as emphasis is on critical thinking, not memorization,

 

 

Bibliography (most if not all are in the CBE Library; many may be available in public libraries)
Anderson, Alex. The Problem of the House. French Domestic Life and the Rise of Modern Architecture, 2006.

Ayers, Andrew. The Architecture of Paris, 2004 (a guidebk, not a history; nonetheless useful)
Benton, Tim.
The Modernist House, 2006
Bréon et Rivoirard (eds),
1925 Quand L'Art Déco Séduit le Monde, catalogue, exhibition, Cité de l'architecture et du patrimoine, Paris, 2014

Ballon, Hilary. The Paris of Henri IV. Architecture and Urbanism, 1991
Ballon, Hilary
. Louis LeVau. Mazarin’s Collège, Colbert’s Revenge, 1999
Barthes, Roland.
The Eiffel Tower and Other Mythologies
Benjamin, Walter. The Arcades Project, 1999
Benjamin, Walter.
Reflections. Essays, Aphorisms, Autobiographical Writings, 1978 Benton, Charlotte, Tim Benton, and Ghislaine Wood, Art Deco 1910-1939, 2003.

Berg, Roger. Histoire des juifs à Paris. De Chilperic à Jacques Chirac, 1997.

Bergdoll, Barry. European Architecture 1750-1890, 2000
Berger, Robert.
The Palace of the Sun. The Louvre of Louis XIV, 1993

Borsi, F. and Godoli, Paris 1900

Braham, Allan. The Architecture of the French Enlightenment, 1980
Caine, Barbara & Glenda Sluga,
Gendering European History: 1780-1920, 2002
Chaslin, François.
Les Paris de François Mitterrand, 1985
Choisy, Françoise.
The Modern City: Planning in the 19th century, 1969
Christ, Ivan.
Les Metamorphoses de Paris. Cent paysages parisiens photographiés. 1967.
Clayson, Hollis and André Dombrowski,
Is Paris Still the Capital of the Nineteenth Century? Essays on Art and Modernity 1850-1900, Routledge, London/New York, 2016.

Cleary, Richard. Place Royale and Urban Design in the Ancien Regime. 1999
Corbusier, Le.
Towards a New Architecture, 1927 or any later edition (best is a recent translation by John Goodman, with introduction by Jean-Louis Cohen, 2007)
Cusset, F.
French Theory. How Foucault, Derrida, Deleuze, & Co. Transformed Intellectual Life of the United States, 2003 (more about the influence of French theorists in the '80s-90s than theories themselves, but still informative)
Dal Co, Francesco.
Centre Pompidou. Renzo Piano, Richard Rogers, & Making of a Modern Monument, 2016

De Thézy, Marie. Marville Paris, 1994
DeAmicus, Edmondo.
Studies of Paris, transla from Italian, 1878 (or later reprints, eg 1887)
Durand, Jean-Nicolas-Louis.
Précis of the Lectures on Architecture, Getty Research Institute, 2000
Egbert, Donald Drew.
The Beaux-Arts Tradition in French Architecture, 1980
Evenson, Norma.
Paris. A Century of Change, 1878-1978, 1979
Engrand, Lionel et Soline Nivet, eds.,
Architectures 80. Une chronique métropolitaine. Pavilion l'Arsenal, 2011 Fachard, Sabine (ed). Paris 1979-1989, Rizzoli, 1988
Fagan, Garrett G.
Bathing in Public in the Roman World [Cluny baths], Univ Michigan Press, 1999.
Gaillard, Jeanne.
Paris, la Ville (1870-1870), 1997
Gallet, Michel.
Demeures parisienne. L’Epoque de Louis XVI, 1964
Gerbino, Anthony.
François Blondel. Architecture, Erudition, and the Scientific Revolution, 2010
Gould, C.
Bernini in Paris, 1981
Gleiniger, Matzig, and Redecke.
Paris. Contemporary Architecture, 1997
Greenhaigh, Paul, ed.
Art Nouveau 1890-1914, 2000
Harvey, David.
Paris, Capital of Modernity. 2003
Higonnet, Patrice.
Paris. Capital of the World, 2002
Hillairet, Jacques.
Dictionnaire des Rues de Paris
Jones, Colin. Paris. Biography of a City, 2005 [hist of the city, more scholarly than Horne]
Jordan, David P.
Transforming Paris. The life and Labors of Baron Haussmann, 1995 [plain history, but useful bkgd]

Kennel, Sarah, Peter Barberie and DeMondenard. Marville, Photographer of Paris
Kostof, Spiro. A History of Architecture [standard text in arch hist; highly recommended for those who have little/no backgrd in archtr)
Kostof,
The Architect. Chapters in the History of the Profession
Lavedan, Pierre. Nouvelle Histoire de Paris, 1975
Lubell, Sam.
Paris 2000. Monacelli Press, 2007
MacDonald, William.
The Roman Empire, v. 2. [on the Roman outposts, beyond Rome]
Mallgrave, Harry Francis.
Modern Architectural Theory. A Historical Survey 1672-1968, 2005
Mattie, Erik.
World’ s Fairs, 1998
McClendon, Charles B.
The Origins of Medieval Architecture. Building in Europe, A.D. 600-900, 2005
Mead, Christopher.
The Paris Opera, 1991
MLA
Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 5th or 6th ed.
Miller, Michael.
The Bon Marché. Bourgeois Culture & the Department Store, 1869-1920, 1981 (available e-bk)

Middleton, Robin. The Beaux-Arts and Nineteenth Century French Architecture, 1982.
Mumford, Lewis.
The City in History. Its Origins, Transformations, and Its Prospects, 1961
Neumann, Dietrich.
Film Architecture. From Metropolis to Blade Runner, 1999
Onians, John.
Bearers of Meaning. The Classical Orders, 1988
Picon, A.
French Architects & Engineers in Age of Enlightenment, 1988
Pinkney, David.
Napoléon III and the Rebuilding of Paris, 1958
Ranum, Orest.
Paris in the Age of Absolutism, 1979
Roux, Simone.
Paris in the Middle Ages, 2003; Engl transla 2009
Russell, Frank.
Art Nouveau Architecture
Rykwert, Joseph. The First Moderns. The Architects of the Eighteenth Century, 1980
Saalmann, Howard. Haussmann: Paris Transformed, 1971
Salvadori, Mario.
Why Buildings Stand Up.
Saylor, Henry H. Dictionary of Architecture, 1952

Scarlett, Frank and Townley, Les Arts Décoratifs, 1925

Summerson, John. The Classical Language of Architecture, 1963 (or later reprint)
Sutcliffe, Anthony.
Paris: An Architectural History, 1993
Texier, Simon.
Paris Contemporain de Haussmann à nos jours, 2005
Texier, S.
Paris. Grammaire de l'architecture XXe-XXIe siècles, 2007
Thomson, David. Renaissance Paris. Architecture and Growth 1475-1600
Troy, Nancy. Modernism and the Decorative Arts in France, 1991
Van Zanten, David.
Building Paris. Architectural Institutions and the Transformation of the French Capital, 1994

Van Zanten, D. Designing Paris. The Architecture of Duban, Labrouste, Duc, and Vaudoyer, 1987
Vidler, Anthony (ed). “Paris under the Academy: City and Ideology,”
Oppositions 8, Spring 1977.
Villari, Sergio
. J.N.L. Durand 1760-1834, 1990
Wakeman, Rosemary.
The Heroic City. Paris 1945-1958, 2009
Weber, Nicolas. Le Corbusier: A Life, 2008
Wigley, Mark. White Walls, Designer Dresses: The Fashioning of Modern Architecture, 2001
Wilson, Chistopher.
The Gothic Cathedral, 1990
Yegül, Fikret.
Baths and Bathing in Classical Antiquity, 1992

Ziskin, Rochelle. The Place Vendome. Architecture and Social Mobility in 18th c. Paris, 1999
Zola, Emile.
Au Bonheur des Dames, 1887; (in English: Ladies Paradise) Zola, E. Paris, New York, 1898

 

 

Catalog Description: 
The architecture of Paris from its pre-Roman origins to the present.
GE Requirements: 
Individuals and Societies (I&S)
Visual, Literary, and Performing Arts (VLPA)
Credits: 
5.0
Status: 
Active
Last updated: 
February 11, 2021 - 10:00pm

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